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      THE SAXONS  
         
    Having been successful in establishing himself in the possession of the district comprised in the modern counties of Sussex and Surrey, Ella formed his newly acquired province into a kingdom, of which he became the first king. Cissa succeeding him in the government of this province, to which the part of Hampshire bordering on Sussex was afterwards added, made Regnum his chief place of residence.   From this circumstance the name of the city was, out of compliment to him, shortly afterwards changed to Cissa-ceaster, from whence it derived its present name of Chichester.
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  In the valley of the Adur Saxon settlements soon began to appear, most of them doubtless on the sites of earlier villages whose inhabitants had been driven out or slaughtered by the invaders. In addition to establishing themselves on the old hill-forts on the high points of the Downs we find them settling at and naming many places in the neighbourhood and elsewhere. The Saxon terminations " ham," " ing " and " ton," common in the Adur Valley, indicate the abode of Saxon communities.
  After the introduction of Christianity by St. Wilfrid, the exiled Bishop of York (A.D. 680) and its spread all through the South Saxon kingdom came the building of churches. These, of course, were at first of wood, but as the centuries passed they were replaced by more worthy buildings. The work of Saxon masons may still be seen at many places in Sussex and near at hand-Old Shoreham, St. Botolphs, further up the Adur, and at Sompting.
  During the eighth century a somewhat remarkable man appeared in the Adur Valley, a Saxon saint named Cuthman. As a youth, before his coming thither, he dwelt in the West Saxon Kingdom and there tended his father's sheep. It was his daily custom to perform a miracle. On the approach of mid-day the shepherd boy would describe with his crook a circle round the flock, bidding the sheep in the name of the Lord not to stray beyond it during his absence at dinner.
  After his father's death Cuthman and his mother were left in great poverty and were forced to leave their home. They set forth travelling eastward but the aged mother was too infirm to journey in any other way than by means of a wheelbarrow-couch, which her dutiful son constructed for her comfort and which he partially supported by means of a cord over his shoulders.
  As they were thus passing through a certain hayfield the cord broke and Cuthman replaced it with elder twigs and thereupon 9
   

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Copyright © Martin Snow 2002 All rights reserved
Revised 27 February 2002